Irish Stoat

Mustela erminea hibernica

The Irish stoat is widespread throughout Ireland and is a distinct sub-species confined to Ireland and the Isle of Man. They are often mistakenly called weasels in rural areas, but weasels are not found in Ireland.

The main difference in the Irish stoat is the dividing line between the chestnut-brown fur and the cream underside, which is usually irregular, and the hair on the upper lip is brown in the Irish stoat, also there is no white edge on the ear. The tip of the tail is always black. They do not normally become white (Ermine) in winter, due to our climate and lack of sitting snow.

Irish stoats have long thin cylindrical bodies and short legs. Males are larger than females with the average adult male measuring up to 40cm for the head and body while the females are shorter measuring up to 30cm. Stoats have long slender tails in proportion to their bodies which have a distinctive black tip at the end, males grow slightly longer tails than females which can measure up to 14cm in length. Adult males weigh up to 400 grams with females being much lighter weighing on average 200 grams. Unusually for mammals there is a noticeable difference in the size of the Irish population of stoats with individuals in the south being bigger and heavier than those found in more northern areas. Stoats have excellent vision and largely hunt by sight, their senses of smell and hearing are also well developed. They are good climbers, can swim well if required and able to run quite fast for short distances using a bounding stride interrupted to stand upright on their hind legs to survey the area.

They can be found in woodlands, hedgerows, marsh, heather, lowland farms, moorland, coastal areas and mountains. They prefer open woodlands and rocky scrub covered areas, on agricultural lands they would be near stone walls, ditches or hedgerows.

Irish stoats are skilled hunters they generally prey on rodents, birds, rabbits and insects. Male stoats will stalk and kill prey much larger than themselves, while females concentrate on smaller mammals like shrews, mice and rats. A single strong bite to the back of the neck is the favored method of attack for stoats. While they are largely carnivorous they will supplement their diets with berries and fruits depending on availability. While above ground stoats use their eyesight to locate prey such as birds, reptiles and voles while they use their sense of smell if hunting rabbits or rats below ground. Stoats are good climbers and will eat bird’s eggs from the nest, and as competent swimmers they can hunt fish in slow moving rivers.

The main breeding season for the Irish stoat begins in May and ends in July. An unusual adaptation for small mammals sees a long delay between mating and when gestation begins, this is done to ensure that the young are born the following year in early summer to avail of better conditions and food supply. Irish stoats produce one litter per year with each litter of five to twelve young known as kits. When born they are blind, deaf and have a light covering of fluffy white fur weighing only 4 grams. They are totally dependent on their mother and are fully weaned after five weeks. Rapid growth will see the young stoats becoming fully independent after twelve weeks by which time their mothers will have taught them several hunting techniques which they will need when establishing their own territories. Another unusual reproductive trait of the Irish stoat is that some female kits can become sexually mature after only a few weeks, if mating occurs with an adult male then the young stoat can become pregnant while still being weaned by her mother although the delayed gestation period of stoats means she will not give birth until the following year once she sets up her own territory.

The Animal Ecology & Conservation Group, NUIG, with the support of The Vincent Wildlife Trust, are carrying out a nationwide study of the Irish stoat. If you have any information on the Irish stoat, especially sightings, please fill in our online survey form at:

Photo by Carrie Crowley



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The 2014 rule shake-up is the biggest since…when exactly?

Certainly it’s the biggest since 2009, when KERS first appeared and the majority of the current aero rules were introduced. According to Sky Sports F1’s Martin Brundle, “It’s right up there, I would have thought, with banning turbos in that era”. It’s now 25 years since the era to which Martin refers passed F1 by, yet the new rules see the sport going back to the future.

But only up to a point. Yes, turbos are back – but not with a vengeance. The 1200bhp fire-belching monsters that Brundle and his contemporaries grappled with back in the 1980s are certainly not on the agenda. Times have changed, attitudes have shifted, and what’s to come reflects as much.

In short, F1 is going green. The ‘revolution’ which started with the introduction of KERS five years ago has been advanced by the 2014 rules, which were originally framed in the summer of 2011. Fuel will be rationed more strictly than ever before and a far greater emphasis is being placed on energy recovery. Further efficiency gains will also be produced due to chassis changes cutting both downforce and drag.

Yet the changes are not as fundamental as they might have been and, as is usually the case in F1, the result is very much a compromise. Haggling has persisted throughout the gestation period, with the engine specification changed (a four-cylinder unit was initially suggested) and cost considerations putting the implementation back a year. In terms of aero at least, what we’ll see will be very similar to what we’ve already got.

The debate about what we’ll hear has been more pronounced – with Bernie Ecclestone among those suggesting that the roar of the now departed V8s will be castrated, with slower lap times also having an adverse effect on ‘The Show’. Then there’s the issue of cost: a lot of teams are finding the going tough enough as it is; change doesn’t come cheap.

Such a departure raises other questions too, which Martin discusses in Part Two of our feature while McLaren Technical Director Tim Goss outlines how the changes will affect chassis design.

2014 – The facts


The normally aspirated 2.4-litre V8 engines used from 2006 until the season just gone will be replaced by 1.6-litre V6s with a single turbocharger and rev. limit reduced from 18,000 rpm to 15,000 rpm. The original intention was for four-cylinder turbo engines limited to 12,000rpm but that plan wilted in the face of opposition, notably from Ferrari.


Fuel will be injected directly into each cylinder and mass flow will be controlled according to a formula which does not allow the rate to exceed 100kg/hour. Furthermore, the amount of fuel cars will start races with comes down from around 150kg to 100kg, meaning an effective increase in efficiency of approximately 33 per cent.


This is where the additional power will come from. Cars currently use KERS, of course, and the device will remain. However, heat energy will also be recovered from the exhaust turbine (which spins the turbo). The systems are known as Motor Generator Units (MGU-K and MGU-H respectively) and the cumulative effect will roughly be tenfold: whereas KERS in its current guise has given an 80hp boost for 6.7 seconds per lap, ERS will offer 161bhp for 33 seconds. A maximum of 4MJ of energy can be stored per lap.

Engine + ERS = Power Unit

This is the term being applied to the combination of hydrocarbons and voltage outlined above, although whether it catches on is another matter. Depending on how good a job Mercedes, Renault and Ferrari do, it is anticipated that overall power will remain in the region of 750bhp.

Something that definitely will be heard next year, however, will be the actual sound of an F1 engine in the pitlane. The FIA’s original intention had been for a reliance on electrical power only but this has now been put back to 2017.

Only five power units will be allowed next season (eight engines have been permitted) and any use of an additional complete power unit will result in the driver having to start the race from the pitlane. Meanwhile, any changes of individual elements, such as turbo, MGUs or energy store, will result in a ten-place grid penalty.

They will therefore need to last at least 4,000km rather than the current 2,000km.

As is currently the case, there will be a ‘freeze’ with power units homologated by the FIA between 2014 and 2020. However, changes will be allowed for “installation, reliability and cost-saving reasons” while manufacturers will also be given the chance to make up any performance shortfall.


Eight-speed gearboxes will replace the current seven while ratios will be fixed for the season (although they can be re-nominated in 2014 only). Gearboxes must also last for six consecutive races, an increase from the current five.


Here, too, the changes are intended to boost efficiency, yet the FIA announced in December 2012 that “changes made to bodywork design, originally aimed at reducing downforce and drag for increased efficiency, have reverted to 2012 specification”.

Ideas such as reverting back to ground effects – whereby a Venturi tunnel on the car’s underbody generates downforce without the drag – were initially mooted but what has emerged carries, in truth, a large degree of compromise.

But that’s not to say the changes are insignificant. By the sound of it, the most fundamental change comes at the front of the car, where a narrower front wing and lower nose will significantly alter the airflow. So, starting there and working back:

The front wing width will be reduced from 1800mm to 1650mm

Tim Goss: “Probably one of the most significant changes is the front wing, the span of which has been reduced, moving the endplates in. That, in terms of the airflow across the car, is quite a major design challenge because the front-wing endplates are now sitting more directly in front of the tyres.”

The nose, which has been raised for many seasons now as designers seek downforce by pushing as much air as possible underneath the car, will be lowered from a height of 550mm to 185mm. Also, the ‘step’ seen for the last couple of seasons will be a thing of the past.

Tim Goss: “The rules stipulate that you must have a lower tip to the nose. One of the reasons for that is to try and prevent cars launching off the back of other cars – if a following car was to hit the rear tyre of a car in front then it would get kicked up in the air, but a lower nose would prevent that.”

The chassis height will also be lowered.

Tim Goss: “There’s a regulation on the chassis height that’s dropped by 50mm. The chassis height towards the cockpit, the limits there are the same. So essentially, the chassis will have to drop down as you go forwards and then the nose tip continues to drop as well. The days of a high chassis and high nose tip are gone.”

Side-impact structures will be made standard.

Tim Goss: “The crash tube that sits within the bodywork here will be a standardised tube. It’s being developed by Red Bull and the idea is two-fold: one to reduce costs and, two, the current regulations mean that the tubes aren’t particularly good in a lateral impact. They’re very good at taking an end-on impact but in a lateral impact they’re not particularly good. There’s a longer, more triangulated tube that all teams will have to run and that will dictate the amount of freedom you’ve got in terms of shaping the forward sidepod and floor. All the teams at the moment tend to do slightly different things with their side-impact tubes.”

No rear-wing main plane while the wing itself will be slightly flatter

Tim Goss: “There’s no rear-wing main plane allowed. The lower wing is not allowed at all, there’s an exclusion zone that sits there.

“Then the rear-wing box as we call it, which is the height of the rear wing from top to bottom, has been reduced. Both of them take downforce off the rear of the car.”

A central exhaust exit

Tim Goss: “The final significant change at the rear is that you have to have a central exhaust exit rather than exits at the sides of the car. So all exhaust systems will be exiting rearward of the rear-wheel centreline. The whole idea of moving the exhaust to that position is to prevent their use in creating extra downforce.”


Engine capacity might be reduced but the additional ancillaries will actually push the minimum weight of the car up from 642kg to 690kg.

This is without fuel but includes driver weight and there is a feeling that it’s actually still too low – hence the debate over whether heavier drivers might be penalised.


Pirelli has long been working on a new tyre – indeed, last May’s controversial test with Mercedes was in part undertaken with next year in mind.

As a consequence of the rule changes, Pirelli Motorsport Director Paul Hembery has promised “very dramatic changes” given that electric motors produce more torque at lower revs. For example, it’s been speculated that 2014 cars will be capable of generating wheelspin when changing from fourth to fifth gear.

Although the new tyre will have the same dimensions as the current model, the profile will be different while the structure is also being changed to cope with the greater forces unleashed.



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